*Note: Lead coder should download and save a copy of all answer keys, and be responsible for sharing them with coding team only after practice and reliability coding has been completed.
Code each utterance as a comment, question, directive, or cloze prompt.
Implicitly prompting for child/ren to complete a sentence with a word or phrase.
Elaborating on child utterances by recasting or expanding the topic.
The number of words a child must say to adequately answer the question.
There are many ways to ask a question.
Decide whether the teacher knew the answer to the question before s/he asked.
Children can produce single-word or multiple-word responses.
Who is controlling the conversation, the teacher or a child?
Determine whether the child's response to a teacher question was accurate.
Talking about the function of print as a meaningful symbol.
Naming the author/illustrator or discussing their roles.
Discussing how to use books, book parts, or rules and conventions that English print requires.
Talking about letter names, letter sounds, alphabetical order, or letter features
Talk that identifies whole words in print or models writing of words.
Talk about how to write, invented spelling, and modeled writing.
Talk focused on managing children’s behavior.
Talk that focuses students’ or the teacher’s attention.
Any talk that praises students.
Referencing characters as proper nouns.
Referring to overt character behaviors,
Indicating explicit references to cognitive processes.
Indicating wishes or wants.
Capturing feelings and emotions.
Expressing judgments about the quality of something.
Discussing the link between cause and effect, or problems and their solutions.
Inferences on a forecasted causal chain into the future.
Asking for or providing a word’s definition.
Modeling links between text and personal experiences.
Building background information and facts.
Dramatizing the book or other pretend role-play.
Explicit discussions of when events occurred.
Comparing or contrasting at literal and inferential levels.